Science Overview | Publications

Science Overview

Synergistic Response: “Two Halves Are Better Than One”

ImmuRx scientists discovered the synergistic benefits of stimulating both the innate and adaptive halves of the immune system. The result is a qualitatively and quantitatively better immune response.

Competitive Advantage Across A Broad Spectrum Of Diseases

Conventional immunotherapy stimulates just one half of the immune system, and has failed due to insufficient stimulation of the immune response. The ImmuRx platform has demonstrated significantly more antigen specific CD8+ T cell activation than competing adjuvants; longer survival in solid tumor models and hematapoietic tumor models; and seven log reduction in viral and bacterial challenges.

Publications by ImmuRX Scientists

Selected publications by ImmuRx Scientists.

Ahonen CL, Wasiuk A, Fuse S, Turk MJ, Ernstoff MS, Suriawinata AA, Gorham JD, Kedl RM, Usherwood EJ, Noelle RJ. Enhanced efficacy and reduced toxicity of multifactorial adjuvants compared with unitary adjuvants as cancer vaccines.  Blood. 2008 Mar 15;111(6):3116-25. Epub 2008 Jan 17.

Ernstoff MS, Crocenzi TS, Seigne JD, Crosby NA, Cole BF, Fisher JL, Uhlenhake JC, Mellinger D, Foster C, Farnham CJ, Mackay K, Szczepiorkowski ZM, Webber SM, Schned AR, Harris RD, Barth RJ Jr, Heaney JA, Noelle RJ. Developing a rational tumor vaccine therapy for renal cell carcinoma: immune yin and yang.  Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Jan 15;13(2 Pt 2):733s-740s. Review.

Sanchez PJ, McWilliams JA, Haluszczak C, Yagita H, Kedl RM.  Combined TLR/CD40 stimulation mediates potent cellular immunity by regulating dendritic cell expression of CD70 in vivo.  J Immunol. 2007 Feb 1;178(3):1564-72.

McWilliams JA, McGurran SM, Dow SW, Slansky JE, Kedl RM.   A modified tyrosinase-related protein 2 epitope generates high-affinity tumor-specific T cells but does not mediate therapeutic efficacy in an intradermal tumor model.  J Immunol. 2006 Jul 1;177(1):155-61.

Wille-Reece U, Flynn BJ, Loré K, Koup RA, Miles AP, Saul A, Kedl RM, Mattapallil JJ, Weiss WR, Roederer M, Seder RA.  Toll-like receptor agonists influence the magnitude and quality of memory T cell responses after prime-boost immunization in nonhuman primates.  J Exp Med. 2006 May 15;203(5):1249-58. Epub 2006 Apr 24.

Wille-Reece U, Flynn BJ, Loré K, Koup RA, Kedl RM, Mattapallil JJ, Weiss WR, Roederer M, Seder RA. HIV Gag protein conjugated to a Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist improves the magnitude and quality of Th1 and CD8+ T cell responses in nonhuman primates.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Oct 18;102(42):15190-4. Epub 2005 Oct 11.

Wille-Reece U, Wu CY, Flynn BJ, Kedl RM, Seder RA.  Immunization with HIV-1 Gag protein conjugated to a TLR7/8 agonist results in the generation of HIV-1 Gag-specific Th1 and CD8+ T cell responses.  J Immunol. 2005 Jun 15;174(12):7676-83.

Gorden KB, Gorski KS, Gibson SJ, Kedl RM, Kieper WC, Qiu X, Tomai MA, Alkan SS, Vasilakos JP. Synthetic TLR agonists reveal functional differences between human TLR7 and TLR8.  J Immunol. 2005 Feb 1;174(3):1259-68.

Ahonen CL, Doxsee CL, McGurran SM, Riter TR, Wade WF, Barth RJ, Vasilakos JP, Noelle RJ, Kedl RM.  Combined TLR and CD40 triggering induces potent CD8+ T cell expansion with variable dependence on type I IFN.  J Exp Med. 2004 Mar 15;199(6):775-84. Epub 2004 Mar 8.

Doxsee CL, Riter TR, Reiter MJ, Gibson SJ, Vasilakos JP, Kedl RM.  The immune response modifier and Toll-like receptor 7 agonist S-27609 selectively induces IL-12 and TNF-alpha production in CD11c+CD11b+CD8- dendritic cells.  J Immunol. 2003 Aug 1;171(3):1156-63.

Gibson SJ, Lindh JM, Riter TR, Gleason RM, Rogers LM, Fuller AE, Oesterich JL, Gorden KB, Qiu X, McKane SW, Noelle RJ, Miller RL, Kedl RM, Fitzgerald-Bocarsly P, Tomai MA, Vasilakos JP. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells produce cytokines and mature in response to the TLR7 agonists, imiquimod and resiquimod.  Cell Immunol. 2002 Jul-Aug;218(1-2):74-86.

Kedl RM, Jordan M, Potter T, Kappler J, Marrack P, Dow S. CD40 stimulation accelerates deletion of tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells in the absence of tumor-antigen vaccination.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Sep 11;98(19):10811-6. Epub 2001 Aug 28.

Ahonen CL, Gibson SJ, Smith RM, Pederson LK, Lindh JM, Tomai MA, Vasilakos JP. Dendritic cell maturation and subsequent enhanced T-cell stimulation induced with the novel synthetic immune response modifier R-848.  Cell Immunol. 1999 Oct 10;197(1):62-72.

Wagner TL, Ahonen CL, Couture AM, Gibson SJ, Miller RL, Smith RM, Reiter MJ, Vasilakos JP, Tomai MA.  Modulation of TH1 and TH2 cytokine production with the immune response modifiers, R-848 and imiquimod.  Cell Immunol. 1999 Jan 10;191(1):10-9.

Mackey MF, Gunn JR, Maliszewsky C, Kikutani H, Noelle RJ, Barth RJ Jr. Dendritic cells require maturation via CD40 to generate protective antitumor immunity.  J Immunol. 1998 Sep 1;161(5):2094-8.



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